Amsterdam

Country Netherlands

Amsterdam Info

Country: Netherlands
Province: North Holland
Mayor: Mr van der Laan
Area: 130 km ²
Location: 52 ° 22 ‘N 04 ° 54′ E
Population (2010)
• population: 764 223
• Density: 4459 persons / km ²
• metropolitan area: 2 165 031

No prefix: +31 20
Twin Cities:

  • Manchester UK
  • United States New York
  • China Beijing
  • Latvia Riga
  • Canada Toronto
  • Bulgaria Varna

Amsterdam – the largest city of the Netherlands and its constitutional capital. All government agencies and representatives of foreign countries are located in The Hague.

General data

Located on the Amstel River, IJ, and numerous channels (160) – the three largest in the shape of crescents arranged almost parallel to each other is – Herengracht (the most centrally located), Keizersgracht and Prinsengracht. Combine them with smaller radial canals forming a network of water separating the city on numerous islands, because Amsterdam is often called the Venice of the North. Amsterdam is located partially below sea level, is the largest city of the Netherlands, a large industrial center, second only to Rotterdam – Dutch trade port (available for ocean-going vessels), coupled channels with the North Sea and the Rhine. An important center of science (2 universities, the Royal Tropical Institute), and cultural as well as being an important tourist center with its museums (Rijksmuseum, Museum Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandthuis Museum of Tropics), monuments and rich botanical gardens. City Centre along the channels created for the most part in the seventeenth century (the golden age in the history of the Netherlands)

The city’s name means – the dam on the Amstel River. For the first time this name was written in Latin in 1275 by Count Floris V – manentes apud homines Amestelledamme (people living near Amestelledamme). R letter appeared for the first time in 1282 – Amestelredamme. In 1327, Count William III used the form Aemsterdam that most closely resembles today’s city name.

Districts Amsterdam

  • Amsterdam-Centrum
  • Amsterdam-Noord
  • Oud-Zuid
  • De Baarsjes
  • Bos en Lommer
  • Geuzenveld / Slotermeer
  • Oost / Watergraafsmeer
  • Osdorp
  • Oud-West
  • Slotervaart
  • Westerpark
  • Westpoort
  • Zeeburg
  • Zuideramstel
  • Amsterdam Zuidoost

History

The town’s origins date back to the thirteenth century. The cultivation of land, due to numerous floods, there was almost impossible, therefore, residents began to deal with fishing and shipping – bay soon would develop into a commercial port. In 1342 years, Count William IV granted the town “Great Privilege”, which strengthened the position of Amsterdam – in the fifteenth century became the most important Dutch trading city. The city grew – in 1300 Amsterdam had about 1,000 inhabitants, in 1400 already 3000, at the end of the fifteenth century there were canals – Singel Kloveniersburgwal and Geldersekade. During the Eighty Years’ War Amsterdam originally stood on the side of the ruler of Spain – Philip II, to finally support the Prince William of Orange. When the Spaniards took over Antwerp in 1585, Amsterdam took the opportunity to become even more important trading town on the map of Europe – many fugitives were hiding in Antwerp, Amsterdam and here odbudowywało their interests, just as a good influence on the prosperity of the town were wealthy Jews, who came here from Portugal and Spain, where they were persecuted. At the end of the sixteenth century, the Amsterdam floated the first ships to India, those trips were a great financial success, which further reinforced the importance of the city. The seventeenth century in the history of Amsterdam and The Netherlands, a golden age. In 1602, the Amsterdam became the largest shareholder in the Dutch East India Company. Amsterdam became the financial center as well.

In 1648 ended the peace of Münster (part of the Peace of Westphalia), the war with Spain and was an independent republic under the rule of William I of Orange. Amsterdam remained outside the center of political life, but had a big influence on the government due to its richness. In the years 1613-1662 a system of canals dug by the coaxial system Grachtengordel, resulting in the city area has quadrupled. In new neighborhoods, new Protestant churches – Zuiderkerk, Noorderkerk and Wester. In the seventeenth century the number of inhabitants rose to 210 000th There were some bad moments – in 1664 fell victim to the plague about 10% of the population. At this time in Amsterdam, lived and worked writers, poets, and the city’s most famous character – the painter Rembrandt. From 1650 until 1850 the city area increased very slightly, but the population grew. As a result of wars with France and England, the city suffered a lot, especially during the French Revolution. After regaining independence by the Netherlands in Amsterdam began to come alive. After the establishment of a Belgian, had a monopoly on trade with the colonies, and the position of the port has yet been strengthened, thanks to the construction of the Canal and the Canal Północnoholenderskiego North Sea. At the end of the nineteenth century, Amsterdam experienced its second golden age. Although during World War I. The Netherlands was neutral, it is Amsterdam, and the rest of the country severely affected by the war – mainly because of lack of food. During World War II the city was occupied by the Germans. More than 100 000 Jews were deported from Amsterdam. The Cultural Revolution in the 60s and 70 Amsterdamowi brought the magic name of the city – the tolerance for the use of soft drugs has made the city became a popular hippy. In the 80s significantly increased the number of immigrants, especially from Surinam, Turkey and Morocco.

Coat of arms

Coat of arms of Amsterdam is a three crosses of St. Andrew’s one after another, the same crosses are located on the city flag, so that there are arranged horizontally. The importance of these crosses is not clear, but historians suspect that they symbolize the three plagues that affected Amsterdam – water, fire and plague. Apart from these, the coat of arms is an Austrian imperial crown, which is placed there in 1489, Emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (The Netherlands were then under his reign) – the sign of the specific support that the emperor gave to the city. Lions coat of arms come from the sixteenth century, when the city was part of the world’s first republic. After World War II in 1946, with the approval of Queen Wilhelmina, was added to the coat of arms motto – “Brave, Determined, Merciful” (Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig)

Economy

Amsterdam is the financial and commercial center, seat of banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies. Here are the headquarters of companies such as ABN Amro, ING Group, Ahold, Delta Lloyd Group and Philips. The city has a large repair yard, refinery and petrochemical complex, a factory car (Ford), a subsidiary of IBM (electronics), Heineken Brewery, Diamond factory, once the factory of the aircraft (Fokker). The business center of the city becomes a Zuidas, where more and more banks have their offices here too there is a World Trade Centre. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (AEX index) is part of the Euronext platform and is the oldest stock exchange in the world, and continues to be the most important in Europe.

Culture and Tourism

Tourism is a huge positive impact on the economy of the city. Amsterdam visitors each year about four million visitors. The town has more than 300 hotels. Amsterdam is a center of cultural life in the Netherlands, has its own ballet, orchestra, theaters, museums and galleries. Amsterdam is a first for many of the city of freedom, tolerance and liberal policy towards soft drugs. Red Light District is one of the biggest attractions for foreign tourists, on a par with cafes (coffeeshop), where marijuana use has been zdepenalizowane. Amsterdam is also regarded as the gay capital of Europe.

Amsterdam in the culture

Many television and theatrical movies filmed in whole or in part in Amsterdam, including

  • Curse of Amsterdam – Amsterdamned (1988) dir. Dick Maas
  • Buena Vista Social Club (1999) dir. Wim Wenders
  • Diamonds Are Forever – Diamonds Are Forever (1971) dir. Guy Hamilton
  • The Diary of Anne Frank – The Diary of Anne Frank (1959) dir. George Stevens
  • Enigma (1999) (TV) dir. Paul Ruven
  • Girl with a Pearl Earring – Girl with a Pearl Earring (2003) dir. Peter Webber
  • If It’s Tuesday, then we are in Belgium – If It’s Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium (1969) dir. Mel Stuart
  • Nature – Karakter (1997) dir. Mike van Diem
  • Ocean’s Twelve – Ocean’s Twelve (2004) dir. Steven Soderbergh
  • Soldier of Orange – Soldaat van Oranje (1977) dir. Paul Verhoeven
  • Twins – De Tweeling (2002) dir. Ben Sombogaart
  • Black Book – Zwartboek (2006) dir. Paul Verhoeven
  • Night Watch – Night Watch (1995) dir. David Jackson, Michael Steinberg
  • Silent Witness – Do not Disturb (1999) dir. Dick Maas.

Also famous pictures (1969 year), John Lennon and Yoko Ono in the campaign for world peace were taken in a bed at the Amsterdam Hilton. In Amsterdam, the action takes place a few books such as “one-widows” by John Irving, and “Murder in Amsterdam” by Ian Burumy. Song Fri “Amsterdam” is one of the most famous songs of Jacques Brel. Most of the novel Discovery of Heaven Harry Mulischa happening in Amsterdam.

Transportation

About 18 km south-west of Amsterdam is a city that supports the airport Schiphol. ([1]). The airport is important not only in terms of transportation, but also economic – is here employed 57,000 people and indirectly an additional 50,000. Schiphol is the fourth largest airport in Europe and 11 in the world and in terms of number of passengers – the fourth in Europe. In 2006, the airport, which has more than 200 calls, serviced 44 million passengers. Is the base Air France-KLM. The airport has excellent rail connections to downtown. [File: Amsterdam1.JPG | thumb | Amsterdam is a city full of classic bikes and cars]] Amsterdam has a seaport ([2]) – the fifth largest in Europe. In addition to transport of goods it deals with the carriage of passengers.

The city is a major railway junction (the main Central Station), which daily serves about 280,000 passengers, which means that this is the liveliest station in the Netherlands. From here trains international – in Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland. In Amsterdam, there are eight other railway stations.

In Amsterdam is also a road junction (A1, A2, A4, A6, A7, A8, A9, A10).

To all parts of the city can be reached using public transport, operated by Gemeentelijkvervoerbedrijf (GVB), Connexxion, Arriva and the Nederlandse Spoorwegen. These are bus, tram and metro. Pedestrians and cyclists can also take advantage of free passage through the IJ. Trams run in Amsterdam since 1900, coaches since 1925, and since 1977, runs underground, the network due to the location of the town is not too extensive – There are four subway lines. Currently (since 2002) created a new line of Noord / Zuidlijn, running from north to south, it is to be completed by 2013.

Amsterdam, however, is known primarily from the vast number of bikes and excellent cycling infrastructure. Approximately 30% of all traffic in the city center is on bikes. There are about 600 in Amsterdam tysięcy.Można even use a bike taxi service called Amsterdam Bike Taxi which have become more popular than the traditional automobile taxis which move in the center is very limited and in addition manners of drivers derived mainly from Turkish and Moroccan Immigration leave much to be desired. Most streets have designated bike path, the city is also plenty of parking for bikes. Annually about 80 000 of these wheeler is stolen, and 25 000 hit the canals.

In Amsterdam, they are popular, especially among tourists buses water (canal bus).

Education and learning

Amsterdam has two universities – University of Amsterdam (Universiteit van Amsterdam) and the Free University of Amsterdam (Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam). Apart from them there are in other universities, including Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Azusa Theologische Hogeschool (theology), Lucia Marthas (Dance Academy), Hogeschool voor Economische Studies (school of economics) and the Amsterdamse Hogeschool voor de Kunsten (Academy of Fine Arts) from the music conservatory and the only one in Western Europe, faculty museology – Academie Reinwardt . In Amsterdam there are also numerous primary and secondary schools, both secular and religious (based on Catholicism, Protestantism and Islam). Amsterdam has three independent schools, which have recently experiencing a return to glory – Vossius Gymnasium, Gymnasium and St Barlaeus. Ignatiusgymnasium, they follow a classic study of the Greek and Latin. Amsterdam International Institute of Social History (Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis) is one of the world’s largest research institutes in the field of social history, especially of labor. Hortus Botanicus, founded in the early seventeenth century is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the world, with very rare plant species.

Sports

Amsterdam is known primarily for football and sports club Ajax, in which he played and applies the most successful in the 70s Johan Cruijff. In 1995 Ajax won the Champions League trophy. Since 1996, Ajax boasts a new modern stadium – Amsterdam ArenA – with over 50 000 seats.

In Amsterdam, there is also a skating rink Jaap Eden baan, where matches are played hockey with the participation of the team Amsterdam – Amstel Tijgers, and on the track (400 meters) around the rink hosts numerous international competitions in speed skating. The city also has its own baseball team – Amsterdam Pirates, the three hockey teams – Amsterdam, Pinoké and Hurley, a basketball team – Amsterdam Astronauts. Since 1999, the City awards grants each year to its best athletes – the first former boxer uhonorowanymi Raymond Joval hokeistka on the grass and Carole that. In 1928, held in Amsterdam IX Summer Olympics. Especially for this occasion, the Olympic Stadium was built where now take place not only sports but also cultural.

Sights and tourist destinations

Amsterdam has more than 7,000 monuments, including churches, houses, bridges, fortifications, and the stock exchange. The city has numerous parks, squares, galleries and museums.

  • Historic downtown
  • Oude Kerk – the oldest church in the city (the thirteenth century – XIV century)
  • Nieuwe Kerk Church (from the early fifteenth century)
  • Wester – Protestant Church (XVII century)
  • Zuiderkerk – the oldest Protestant church in Amsterdam (1611 year)
  • Noorderkerk – the church of the seventeenth century
  • Oosterkerk – the church of the seventeenth century
  • Sint-Nicolaaskerk – St. Nicholas from the nineteenth century
  • Begijnhof
  • Dam Square with the Nationaal Monument – monument commemorating the liberation from Nazi occupation of Amsterdam in 1944.
  • The Royal Palace, formerly the town hall of the seventeenth century
  • Beurs van Berlage (1903 year) – Stock Exchange
  • Weight city from the fifteenth century Nieuwemarkt, part of the fortifications
  • Magere Brug – Skinny Bridge (XVII century) – Amsterdam’s most famous bridge
  • Singel – Amsterdam’s oldest canal, on whose coast is the famous flower market
  • Rembrandt
  • Concertgebouw – concert hall from the late nineteenth century
  • Diamantbeurs – diamond exchange
  • Muiderpoort – city gate (XVII century)
  • House wine trade guild of 1633
  • Maritime arsenal in 1656
  • Town houses of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
  • Objects in the old university hospital team from the mid eighteenth century
  • De Wallen – Red Light District
  • Timer – musical theater
  • Central Station – the neo-Gothic building
  • Verzetsmuseum Amsterdam – Dutch Resistance Museum
  • Munt – the tower from the seventeenth century
  • Montelbaanstoren – the tower from 1512, part of the fortifications
  • The Olympic Stadium
  • Oost-Indische Huis – the seat of VOC – East India Company
  • Homomonument – a monument commemorating the gays and Lesbians, persecuted for their sexual orientation
  • Sensation White: The event takes place once a year with numerous representatives of house music and trance is decorated with numerous spectacular effects (lights, theater, spectacle)
  • Sensation Black: Sensation as it relates to so many hardstyle and hardcore music. The event is held one week after the Sensation White.

Museums

  • Akhnaton (Cultural Center of the World)
  • Allard Pierson Museum (Museum of Archaeology, University of Amsterdam)
  • Amsterdams Historisch Museum * (Historical Museum)
  • The Amsterdam Dungeon (historical museum and park attractions)
  • Frankhuis Anne (Anne Frank House)
  • Arcam, Architectuur Centrum Amsterdam (Museum of Architecture)
  • Beurs van Berlage (historic stock market)
  • Bijbelmuseum (Bible Museum)
  • De Burcht, Vakbondsmuseum (Museum of the Labor Movement)
  • Energetica (Museum of Electrical Engineering)
  • Filmmuseum (Film Museum)
  • Fotografiemuseum FOAM (Photography Museum)
  • Gemeente Archief Amsterdam (Municipal Archives)
  • Van Goghmuseum (Van Gogh Museum)
  • Hash Marihuana & Hemp Museum (Museum of Hashish, Marijuana and Hemp)
  • Huis Marseille (Photo Gallery)
  • Joods Historisch Museum (Jewish Museum)
  • Madame Tussauds Scenerama
  • Molen van Sloten meth Kuiperijmuseum (Museum of windmills and polders)
  • Multatuli Museum (Museum of Eduard Douwes Dekker)
  • Amstelkring Museum (museum of the seventeenth century)
  • Museum Geelvinck-Hinlopen Huis (seventeenth-century house with original interiors)
  • Museum Van Loon (middle-class house of the family Van Loon)
  • Het Schip Museum (building designed by Michel de Klerk in the early twentieth century, the museum of architecture of the Amsterdam School)
  • Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum (Maritime Museum)
  • NEMO (Science Center)
  • Olympic Experience Amsterdam (Museum of Sports)
  • Persmuseum (Museum of Journalism in the Internationaal Instituut voor Sociale Geschiedenis)
  • Pianola Museum (Museum Pianoli)
  • Rembrandthuis (Rembrandt House)
  • The Rijksmuseum (National Museum)
  • Stedelijk Museum (Municipal Museum, contemporary art)
  • Tassenmuseum Hendrikje (Museum of bags)
  • Theatermuseum (Theatre Museum)
  • Theo Thijssen Museum (Museum of Theo Thijssen)
  • Tropenmuseum (Museum of the Tropics)
  • Verzetsmuseum Amsterdam (Resistance Museum)
  • Woonbootmuseum (Residential Ship Museum)
  • Zoological Museum Amsterdam (Zoological Museum)

The most famous fairs

  • Cannabis Cup – the only exhibition in the world marijuana
  • Albert Cuyp
  • Waterloo
  • Dappermarkt
  • Noordermarkt
  • Bloemenmarkt – flower market on the Singel

Cultural Highlights

  • April 30 – Queen’s Day
  • May 4 – National Day of Remembrance
  • 5 May – Liberation Day
  • August (first weekend) – Gay Parade Amsterdam Gay Pride
  • August (every 5 years – next in 2015) – Sail Amsterdam

Famous residents of Amsterdam

  • Dennis Bergkamp – footballer
  • Hendrik Petrus Berlage – architect
  • Frits Bolkestein – politician
  • Bredero – poet
  • Henk ten Cate – soccer coach
  • Johan Cruijff – footballer
  • Eduard Douwes Dekker – Writer
  • Wilhelmina Drucker – activist feminist movement
  • Max Euwe – chess player
  • Louis van Gaal – soccer coach
  • Ruud Gullit – footballer
  • André Hazes – singer
  • Freddy Heineken – beer producer
  • Willem Frederik Hermans – writer
  • Harry Mulisch – writer
  • Jan Swammerdam – entomologist
  • Baruch Spinoza – Philosopher
  • Frank Rijkaard – soccer coach
  • Gerard Reve – writer
  • André Kuipers – astronaut
  • Patrick Kluivert – footballer
  • Pieter Hooft Corneliszoon – poet
  • Anne Frank – writer
  • Theo van Gogh – a director, columnist
  • Rembrandt van Rijn – artist
  • Michiel de Ruyter – Admiral
  • Jan Pieterszoon Sweelinck – composer
  • Joost van den Vondel – poet
  • Vincent van Gogh – painter

 

Amsterdam Weather

[gweather city="Amsterdam" country="NL" temp="C" credit=0]
[gweather city="Amsterdam" country="NL" temp="F" credit=0]

 

 

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